means an intentional manoeuvre involving an abrupt change in an aircraft’s attitude, an abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration, not necessary for normal flight or for instruction for licences or ratings other than the aerobatic rating.
means an engine-driven fixed-wing aircraft heavier than air which is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.
means a type of aeroplane which is required to be operated with a co-pilot as specified in the flight manual or by the air operator certificate.
means any machine which can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
means the consistent use of good judgement and well-developed knowledge, skills and attitudes to accomplish flight objectives.
means a power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft, with the exception of hot-air airships, which, for the purposes of this Part, are included in the definition of balloon.
means a lighter-than-air aircraft which is not engine-driven and sustains flight through the use of either gas or an airborne heater. For the purposes of this Part, a hot-air airship, although engine-driven, is also considered a balloon.
means a ground-based training device which represents the student pilot’s station of a class of aeroplanes. It may use screen-based instrument panels and spring-loaded flight controls, providing a training platform for at least the procedural aspects of instrument flight.
means a categorisation of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics, for example aeroplane, powered-lift, helicopter, airship, sailplane, free balloon.
means a categorisation of single-pilot aeroplanes not requiring a type rating.
means a categorisation of balloons taking into account the lifting means used to sustain flight.
means the transport of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire.
means a combination of skills, knowledge and attitude required to perform a task to the prescribed standard.
means an action which constitutes a task that has a triggering event and a terminating event that clearly defines its limits, and an observable outcome.
means a discrete function consisting of a number of competency elements.
means a pilot operating other than as pilot-in-command, on an aircraft for which more than one pilot is required, but excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction for a licence or rating.
means a flight between a point of departure and a point of arrival following a pre-planned route, using standard navigation procedures.
means a pilot who relieves the co-pilot of his/her duties at the controls during the cruise phase of a flight in multi-pilot operations above FL 200.
means flight time or instrument ground time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a properly authorised instructor.
means an action or inaction taken by the flight crew which leads to deviations from organisational or flight intentions or expectations.
means the process of detecting and responding to errors with countermeasures which reduce or eliminate the consequences of errors, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.
means a full size replica of a specific type or make, model and series aircraft flight deck, including the assemblage of all equipment and computer programmes necessary to represent the aircraft in ground and flight operations, a visual system providing an out-of-the-flight deck view, and a force cueing motion system.
for aeroplanes, touring motor gliders and powered-lift, it means the total time from the moment an aircraft first moves for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to rest at the end of the flight;
for helicopters, it means the total time from the moment a helicopter’s rotor blades start turning until the moment the helicopter finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and the rotor blades are stopped;
for airships, it means the total time from the moment an airship is released from the mast for the purpose of taking off until the moment the airship finally comes to rest at the end of the flight, and is secured on the mast;
for sailplanes, it means the total time from the moment the sailplane commences the ground run in the process of taking off until the moment the sailplane finally comes to a rest at the end of flight;
for balloons, it means the total time from the moment the basket leaves the ground for the purpose of taking off until the moment it finally comes to a rest at the end of the flight.
means all flight time during which the aircraft is being operated under the Instrument Flight Rules.
means a full size replica of a specific aircraft type’s instruments, equipment, panels and controls in an open flight deck area or an enclosed aircraft flight deck, including the assemblage of equipment and computer software programmes necessary to represent the aircraft in ground and flight conditions to the extent of the systems installed in the device. It does not require a force cueing motion or visual system, except in the case of helicopter FTD levels 2 and 3, where visual systems are required. ‘Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer’ (FNPT) means a training device which represents the flight deck or cockpit environment, including the assemblage of equipment and computer programmes necessary to represent an aircraft type or class in flight operations to the extent that the systems appear to function as in an aircraft.
means a categorisation of balloons, taking into account the size or capacity of the envelope.
means a heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the reactions of the air on one or more power-driven rotors on substantially vertical axes.
means the time during which a pilot is controlling an aircraft in flight solely by reference to instruments.
means the time during which a pilot is receiving instruction in simulated instrument flight, in flight simulation training devices (FSTD).
for aeroplanes, it means an operation requiring at least 2 pilots using multi-crew cooperation in either multi-pilot or single-pilot aeroplanes;
for helicopters, it means an operation requiring at least 2 pilots using multi-crew cooperation on multi-pilot helicopters.
means the functioning of the flight crew as a team of cooperating members led by the pilot-in-command.
for aeroplanes, it means aeroplanes certificated for operation with a minimum crew of at least two pilots;
for helicopters, airships and powered-lift aircraft, it means the type of aircraft which is required to be operated with a co-pilot as specified in the flight manual or by the air operator certificate or equivalent document.
means the period between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between sunset and sunrise as may be prescribed by the appropriate authority, as defined by the Member State.
means training aids other than flight simulators, flight training devices or flight and navigation procedures trainers which provide means for training where a complete flight deck environment is not necessary.
means a simple, evaluative statement on the required outcome of the competency element and a description of the criteria used to judge if the required level of performance has been achieved.
means the pilot designated as being in command and charged with the safe conduct of the flight.
means a co-pilot performing, under the supervision of the pilot-in-command, the duties and functions of a pilot-in-command.
means any aircraft deriving vertical lift and in flight propulsion/lift from variable geometry rotors or engines/propulsive devices attached to or contained within the fuselage or wings.
means an aircraft equipped with one or more engines having, with engines inoperative, the char acteristics of a sailplane.
means a pilot who holds a licence which prohibits the piloting of aircraft in operations for which remuneration is given, with the exclusion of instruction or examination activities, as established in this Part.
means the demonstration of skill to revalidate or renew ratings, and including such oral examination as may be required.
(of, e.g. a rating or certificate) means the administrative action taken after a rating or certificate has lapsed for the purpose of renewing the privileges of the rating or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfilment of specified requirements.
(of, e.g. a rating or certificate) means the administrative action taken within the period of validity of a rating or certificate which allows the holder to continue to exercise the privileges of a rating or certificate for a further specified period consequent upon the fulfilment of specified requirements.
means a flight comprising take-off, departure, cruise of not less than 15 minutes, arrival, approach and landing phases.
means a heavier-than-air aircraft which is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its fixed lifting surfaces, the free flight of which does not depend on an engine.
means an aircraft certificated for operation by one pilot.
means the demonstration of skill for a licence or rating issue, including such oral examination as may be required.
means flight time during which a student pilot is the sole occupant of an aircraft.
means a student pilot acting as pilot-in-command on a flight with an instructor where the latter will only observe the student pilot and shall not influence or control the flight of the aircraft.
means events or errors which occur beyond the influence of the flight crew, increase operational complexity and which must be managed to maintain the margin of safety.
means the process of detecting and responding to the threats with countermeasures which reduce or eliminate the consequences of threats, and mitigate the probability of errors or undesired aircraft states.
means a specific class of powered sailplane having an integrally mounted, non-retractable engine and a non-retractable propeller. It shall be capable of taking off and climbing under its own power according to its flight manual.
means a categorisation of aircraft requiring a type rating as determined in the operational suitability data established in accordance with Part-21, and which include all aircraft of the same basic design including all modifications thereto except those which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics.